To restucco or redash means to add a new layer of stucco over the top of your current layer. It's troweled on in the same fashion as the original and you're left with a new layer of stucco. The new stucco can be colored as it's added so you're left with a new color house when all is said and done. Because the new stucco is colored all the way through, there's no worry of the color fading or wearing off. A new texture can also be created with the new layer of stucco. If the current stucco is in bad shape - either worn down, painted, or has been colored by any of the after-mentioned processes - it will have to be sandblasted. Sandblasting roughs up the surface and removes paint or other layers that have been added. The result of doing a restucco is a strong surface that will remain true to it's new color and last a long time. This is the best way to update or change the color of your stucco but unfortunately it's also the most expensive.
Recoat: Every 15-30+ years
How it affects stucco: Adds a new layer of stucco with the same strength and breathability
Fog coat/cement paint
Fog Coat (updated product is called Allegra II) is made from the same materials as stucco (portland cement, limestone, and water) but without the sand. Because it doesn't contain sand it's very thin and can actually be sprayed onto existing stucco like paint and will keep the original texture of the stucco. But, because it doesn't contain sand it goes on very thin and does not add much strength to the wall. Fog coat is great for revamping stucco to it's original color, evening out colors, and covering stains in the stucco. It can also be used to change the color of stucco but I have a slight worry that if the fog coat wears down at all the original color will show through. Fog coat is one of the cheaper ways to change the color of stucco and lasts longer than paint but shorter than doing a restucco job.
On a side note, I saw the terms Fog coat and cement paint used to describe essentially the same thing - cement, limestone, pigment, and water combined to make a paint like substance - so I grouped them together. There wasn't much information on cement paint, it's either a loose term or a product similar to fog coat but that contains water proof and anti-fungal chemicals.
Recoat: Every 15 years
How it affects stucco: Lets stucco breathe and shed water but creates a slightly weaker surface layer
Lime wash/white wash
Like what Huck Fin had to do to a fence, lime wash (or white wash) is the process of applying a thin coat of lime powder mixed with water (and a few other additives) to a masonry surface like stucco. The carbon dioxide in the air reacts with the lime to create limestone which bonds to the stucco as it cures. White wash is a lime wash with chalk added for a white coloring but there are many other color options for lime wash. Using different ratios of water and lime creates different consistency from a pale water colored look all the way to a thick opaque look. Once there is a lime wash you can't restucco over it without first sand blasting the lime wash off, it's just not strong enough to bond a new layer of stucco. Lime wash can give a great old-world look to a stucco wall. The cost of lime paint is fairly inexpensive but exteriors need around 5 coats of lime paint so the overall cost (and labor) are higher.
Recoat: I couldn't find any specifics other than "when it begins to wear" but based on the type of application I believe it will last as long as a cement paint/fog coat - 15 years.
How it affects stucco: Creates a strong layer of colored limestone bonded to the stucco that doesn't affect the breathability.